Study for Medical Exams!!!
Created by @theSteveDowling on 2012-06-02
Studying for the internal medicine and step 2 boards of med school.
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theSteveDowling - Steve Dowling - Creator leftylucey - Katie Luce MichelleHarrington - Michelle Harrington highsocietea - Patricia Dowling
Study for Medical Exams!!! Activity
Thank you! And thanks for all the help studying :) Congratulations Katie on passing your medical shelf test! Thank you! :) Good luck on your exam! 28 (cont). jaundice, encephalopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation 28. Correct, also including the following: 28. gynecomastia, spider angiomas, portal HTN (esophageal& rectal varices causing bleeding), ascites, hypoalbuminemia, abnormal blood clotting, elevated liver enzymes 26. Correct. 27. Correct. Hemochromatosis - increased iron storage. Iron & Ferritin levels increased. Causes "bronze diabetes" (type 2 DM w/o risk factors & yellowish skin pigmentation). Treatment = chelation drugs, phlebotomy 27. Hereditary Hemochromatosis 25. UC needs surgery. No surgery for Chron's 25. Depends. UC usually take out rectum and pull through normal colon. Chron's is harder if lots of skip lesions. May need a colostomy or at least ileostomy. 25. Is surgery needed for each Chron's and UC? 26. Hep A RNA to diagnose, transmission is fecal-oral. Hep B serologies, sex. Hep C RNA, needles/IV drugs. Hep D only occurs w/ B infection. Hep E fecal-oral, uncommon in USA 25. Chron's = terminal ileum most common, skip lesions, full thickness of mucosa involved UC = rectum & continues up through colon w/o skipping, submucosa only, increases risk of colon cancer 24. Correct Top Secret 28. What is the sequelae of liver failure? 24. IBS Top Secret 27. This is the most common genetic disease in white people? The initial symptoms (fatigue, impotence) are nonspecific, but patients often have hepatomegaly. Top Secret 26. What is needed to distinguish forms of viral hepatitis? What types are transmitted parentally? Top Secret 25. Name a few differences between Crohn disease and Ulcilative Colitis (origin, location, progression, surgery). Top Secret 24. This is one of the most common causes of GI compaints? The classic patient may be a young adult female with a chronic history of alternating constipation and diarrhea. Nice, I actually learned a couple things doing this. I couldn't pronounce the words if I just tought her. Hope you don't mind I joined the med group hehe This is really cute!! 23. Nasogastric tube aspirate. 22. All should be biopsied FOBT Top Secret 23. What is the best initial test to distinguish upper or lower GI bleed? no, not if the patient is young or H.pylori is positive Top Secret 22. Should all gastric ulcers be biopsied? 21: also GERD which plays a role in general
21: barrett's esophagus, which is commonly caused by excessive alcohol intake 20: obstructive caused by asthma, COPD, emphysema-reduced FEV1 & FVC, increased residual volume. restrictive are interstitial, caused by connective tissue disease, chemicals, etc-decreased lung volume Top Secret 21. What is the most common cause of esophageal cancer? 19. If pulse is present, treat with amiodarone and synchronized cardioversion. 19. Correct. 18. Ventricuilart rate and atrial clot formation. 19: immediate defibrillation and usually drugs like lidocaine or epinephrine 17. Right sided heart enlargement, hypertrophy, or failure due to primary lung disease. 18: embolus breaking off (mural thrombus) and causing a stroke. It can also travel to other vital organs like the kidneys, heart, etc Top Secret 20. What is the difference between obstructive and restrictive lung disease? 17: cor pulmonale = basically pulmonary hypertension caused by fluid overload in the right heart or Right Heart Failure.
Left heart failure is more common, most common cause of right is left failure Top Secret 19. What is required for ventricular fibrillation? 16. Correct. Top Secret 18. What are the main issues for atrial fibrillation? 16: systolic - diuretics, salt restriction & ACE inhibitor if kidney function preserved. Use aspirin & beta blockers if CAD/prior MI. Use digoxin for symptom relief (does not improve survival)
15. Correct 14. First, give oxygen, then start IV line and monitor. Then give a fluid bolus if no signs of congestive heart failure while you try to figure out cause. 15: injury, stasis, hypercoagability 14 con't: cardio-EKG and monitor, hypovolemic-determine where volume loss occurred. 13. Hyperkalemia - tall, tented T waves. Hypokalemia - loss of T waves, t wave flattening, U waves. Hypocalcemia - Long QT. Hypercalcemia - Short QT. 14: 2 large bore IVs & adequate fluid resuscitation, assessing volume status, use PCWP as needed. Determine the cause of shock as well, septic-culture & antibiotics, neuro-cool body temp slightly Top Secret 17. What is cor pulmonale? What is the most common cause of heart failure? 13: hyperkalemia - peaked T waves, shortened PR interval, short QT
hypokalemia - depressed ST and T waves, long QT, long PR
hypercalcemia - short QT
hypocalcemia - long QT 12. Oxytocin, surgery, narcotics, inappropriate IV fluid administration, diuretics, and antiepileptic medications. Top Secret 16. What is therapy for congestive heart failure? 12: diuretics, ACE inhibitors, excessive glucose Top Secret 15. Virchow triad of deep venous thrombosis? Top Secret 14. If a patient goes into shock, what steps should you take to treat? Top Secret 13. What are EKG findings in electrolyte disturbances? Top Secret 12. What are exogenous causes of hyponatremia? 11. PH event, CO2 and bicarbonate give causes 11: pH suggests the primary event (acidosis vs. alkalosis)
PaCO2 and HCO3 suggest the cause and compensation 10. hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, gastrophaphageal reflux dease, insomnia, obesity, sleep apneia 9. Correct, also renal failure and heart failure. 10: diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, kidney, COPD 9: hypertensive encephalopathy, stroke, MI, kidney disease and hypoperfusion related injuries, aortic rupture 8. Diabetes. 7. Atheroclerosis Top Secret 11. Relating to arterial blood gas analysis, in general what value tells you the primary event, whereas these values give you the cause and suggest any compensation present? 7: vascular disease
8: diabetes Top Secret 7: diabetes Top Secret 10. lifestyle changes may treat diseases without meds. Name 4 possible diseases that mild cases of the disease can be cured by this. Top Secret 9. Name 5 possible acute problems that can be caused by severe hypertension? Top Secret 8. This leads to atheroclerosis, retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, and increased incidence of infections? Top Secret 7. Complications of this (e.g. myocardial infraction, heart failure, stroke, gangrene) are involved in roughly one half of deaths in US? Correct - Vitamin A Correct - iron deficiency top secret 6: vitamin A Correct - thiamine top secret 5: iron deficiency Isoniazid causes pyridocine (vitamin B6) defiencency top secret 4: thiamine in alcoholics
Correct - Vitamin B12 top secret 4: Vitamin B12
Top Secret 6. What vitamin is a known teratogen? Top Secret 5. What is the most common cause of anemia? Think of menstral loss in reproductive--age women and cancer in men/old women if no other cause is obvious (relates to minerals)? Top Secret 4 (cont). Watch for Wernicke encephalopathy in alcoholics, and treat with this to prevent Korsakoff dementia? Top Secret 4 (cont) Isoniazid causes what deficiency? Top Secret 4 (cont). If with folate you see pernicious anemia, you should treat with this to prevent permanent neurologic deficits? Top Secret 4: Answer is Vitamins. Top Secret 3: Yes, 2:1; Both may be elevated however. Top secret 3: AST>ALT (at least 2:1) Top Secret 2. The answer is alcohol Top secret 2: alcohol
Number 1 -- Smoking Top Secret 1: atherosclerosis
Top Secret 4. What gives folate to reproductive-age women to prevent neural tube defects? Top Secret 3. In alcoholic hepatitis, what is the classic ratio of asparate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT)? Top Secret 2 (cont) It also causes cancer and cirrhosis and is potentially fatal in withdrawal. Top Secret 2. This is the number 2 cause of preventable morbidity in the US. More than half of accidental and intentional deaths involve this. It is the top cause of preventable mental retardation. Top Secret 1. This is the number one cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States (atherosclerosis, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) These questions will be the top 100 secrets. These are 100 of the top board alerts. They summarize the concepts, principles and most salient details that you should review. Nice group :)
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